Tuesday, September 3, 2019

Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)

Synchronized optical networks (SONET) are a unified digital communication protocol used to transfer large amounts of data over relatively long distances using a fiber optic support.

SONET is a communication protocol, developed by Bellcore, used to transmit a small amount of data over relatively large distances using optical fiber. With SONET, multiple digital data streams are transmitted simultaneously over optical fiber.

SONET is widely used in the telephone network and is one of the first large-scale optical transmission systems. Digital information is transmitted over optical fiber using a LED source or a laser source. The frame format used by SONET is the synchronous transfer signal (STS), with STS-1 as a base level signal at 51.84 Mbps. The STS-1 tire can be carried in the OC-1 signal.

SONET is no different from other technologies, but the hardware is produced to provide better configuration and reliable services to its users. SONET can use a generator to return long distances. This device improves signals that have already traveled long distances. The signals are transferred into electrical signals and then regenerated into high-power signals. The addition of projection multiplexers (ADM) is a common part of SONET. ADMs are designed to fully support the SONET network architecture.

Saturday, August 31, 2019


E1 is a European digital transmission format invented by ITU-T and given the name of the European Conference on Postal and Telecommunications Management (CEPT). It is equivalent to the coordination of transport systems in North America. E2 to E5 are carriers in increasing multiples of E1 format.

The electronic carrier is part of the series of advanced transport systems for the digital transmission of multiple simultaneous telephone calls by time division multiplexing. E1 consists of 32 channels, which can be used to make simultaneous voice calls and each channel is called a "time period" (TS). In accordance with the ITU-T recommendations, two reporting and synchronization time periods are assigned. Therefore, E1 can carry 30 voice calls or data connections simultaneously.

Similar to T-1 in North America, E1 is the European format for digital transmission. E1 carries 2 Mbps signals (32 channels at 64 kbps, with two dedicated signal and control channels), compared to T1, which carries 1.544 Mbps signals (24 channels at 64 kbps).

The E1 connection works on two separate sets of wires, usually an unsecured twisted pair (balanced cable) or using coaxial (unbalanced cable). The maximum peak signal is encoded at 3 volts with pulses using the method to avoid prolonged periods without polarity changes. Data line speed is 2.048 Mbps


Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP, ND) is a protocol in the set of Internet protocols used with Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).

IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) performs functions similar to those provided in the IPv4 address resolution protocol (ARP). NDP also supports the concept of proxy, when a node has an adjacent device capable of forwarding packets on behalf of the node.

Neighbor Discovery Protocol is used in conjunction with the latest version of Internet Protocol (IPv6). Its main function is to analyze IPv6 addresses in valid MAC addresses and the primary hardware address of the devices involved. In IPv4, this function uses the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). All selected addresses are stored as information in the adjacent cache. This buffer not only communicates local addresses of nearby customers to network users, but provides them with additional information, for example, to check availability.

As mentioned above, NDP is also involved in customizing the standard portal. With the addition of the Router Advertising Protocol (RA), it is possible to specify both the standard router and the valid network prefixes: two key parameters for network configuration. Finally, the network protocol, which only exchanges data within a network, acts as a support protocol for dynamic address configuration. This process is also known as "automatic stateless address configuration" (SLAAC).

Monday, August 26, 2019


In this article we will discuss PDH, and we will briefly discuss PDH, and the last article we will discuss about ISDN.
In telecommunications, a digital multimeter hierarchy is a hierarchy that consists of a structured repetition of combined digital multipliers that produce speed signals that are later higher in each level of the hierarchy.

Digital synchronous hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used in telecommunication networks to transmit large amounts of data on digital transmission equipment such as fiber optic and wireless microwave systems.
The PDH design allows streaming of data without synchronization (clocks running at similar times, fully synchronized) to synchronize signal exchange. PDH clocks work very close, but not at exactly the right time with each other so that during transmission times, signal arrival times may vary because transmission speeds are directly related to the clock frequency.
PDH means Plesiochronous digital hierarchy and SDH means synchronous digital hierarchy. Both PDH and SDH are terms associated with numerical multiples used in exchanges. Different hierarchies are merged with different bit rates.
The advantages of PDH include:
The equipment is small enough for use in street cabinets
Good for point-to-point communication
Economic support for access networks

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Voice VLAN

In this article we will discuss Voice VLAN, a brief discussion of Voice VLAN and the last article we will discuss about analog modems.

Voice VLAN is an ingenious feature that allows access ports to transmit voice traffic from an IP phone. Cisco IP phones connect to an IP network via Ethernet to send VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) packets.

The VLAN audio function is disabled by default. When the voice VLAN is enabled, all unmarked traffic is sent based on the priority of the default CoS port. The CoS value is not reliable for IEEE 802.1p or IEEE 802.1Q traffic.

The voice VLAN allows access ports to carry voice IP traffic from an IP phone. Port 1 connects to the key or any other VoIP device. Port 2 is an internal 10/100 interface that contains IP phone traffic. IP phones usually sit next to the computer on the same desk. They require the same UTP cables as computers and also use Ethernet. If we want to connect it to an adapter, we have two options.

Voice VLAN is supported only on access ports. The voice VLAN allows the adapter to accept the traffic marked on an access connector (usually not highlighted). CDP is used to negotiate a voice VLAN between the phone and the network switch (the adapter refers to the phone; this voice VLAN is a separate TLV in the CDP standard).

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Voice over IP (VoIP)

In this article we will discuss Voice Over IP (VoIP), and we will discuss a brief discussion on Voice over IP (VoIP), in the last article we will discuss Campus Area Network (CAN).

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is the transfer of audio and multimedia content over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. VoIP refers to the use of IP to connect PBX, but the term is now used interchangeably with IP telephony.

VoIP is a VoIP shortcut. Voice over Internet Protocol is a class of devices and software that enables people to use the Internet as a way to transfer phone calls by sending voice data in IP packets instead of traditional PSTN transfers.

VoIP has many advantages over a traditional phone system. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is said to be cheap, but most people use it for free. Yes, if you have a computer with a microphone, speakers, and a good Internet connection, you can communicate using VoIP for free. This can also be possible with your mobile phone and your home.

Traditional landlines use reliable copper cables, while VoIP uses Internet connection for voice transmission as data. VoIP Business Phone Systems generally have more features and better features and costs that can start at less than $ 19.99 a month.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Campus Area Network (CAN)

The Campus Area Network (CAN) is a network of several LAN's interconnected in a limited geographical area. CAN is smaller than a Wide Area Network (WAN) or urban network (MAN). CAN is also known as the Company Area Network (CAN).

Campus network, campus area network or corporate network, or CAN is a computer network that is connected to local networks within a limited geographical area.

Routers and switches for data centres. "Campus" is the place where users connect to the network, along with all the devices used by such employees (such as desktops, laptops, IP phones, cell phones, video conferences, printers, etc.).

University and university networks connect administrative buildings, dormitories, academic halls, libraries, student centres, sports facilities and other buildings associated with the institution in a particular city or neighbourhood. The campus networks connect the buildings with the main departments and staff. The corporate campus network is the user side of the larger corporate network within a limited geographical area.

Most CANs consist of multiple LAN's connected between adaptors and routers that come together to create a single network. It works as a LAN, where users with network access (wired or wireless) can communicate directly with other systems within the network

Local Area Network (LAN)

In this article we will discuss the local network, we will have a brief discussion on the local network.

A computer network that connects devices within a building or a group of adjacent buildings, particularly with a radius of less than one kilometre.

A LAN is a computer network that connects computers within a limited area such as residence, school, laboratory, campus or office building. In contrast, a large network covers not only a wider geographical distance, but generally includes leased circuits.

The LAN can function as few or two users (for example in a small office network) or several hundred users in a larger office. LAN's protect cables, adaptors, routers, and other components that allow users to connect to internal servers, websites, and other local networks on large networks.

Local area networks (LAN's) are computer networks ranging from the size of a few computers in an office to hundreds or even thousands of devices distributed in many buildings. It connects computers together and provides shared access to printers, file servers and other services.

Friday, July 12, 2019

Python 3.7 Programming Script For Telnet And Setting IP To Interface (Don't Use It In Real Network)

Python is an open source scripting language, thus used to automate anything!! I have started learning python from its complete basics and then gradually turned up writing scripts to automate stuff around me. To automate things in python, you can simply write scripts.

import getpass
import telnetlib

HOST=input("Enter IP of Router :")
user=input("Enter The Username :")


if password:

print("Enter Enable Password\n")

if password:

tn.write(b"conf t\n")
tn.write(b"int f0/0\n")
ip=input("Enter New IP address with Subnet Mask :")
tn.write(b"do write\n")