Friday, September 21, 2018

OSI Model Interview Questions


OSI Model Interview Questions

The Open Systems Interconnection Model (OSI) was created by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the international standardization body. It was designed as a reference model for describing the functions of the communication system. The OSI model provides the basis for creating and implementing network standards and devices and describes how network applications on different computers can interact through networked media. It has seven levels, each layer describes another function of the data passing through the network.



Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Basic Networking Interview Questions

Basic Networking Interview Questions

Frequently Asked Questions about Network Interviews:
In this high-tech world, there can not be anyone who has never used the Internet. Using the Internet, you can easily find an answer to what he / she does not know.
Earlier, when a person who wants to appear for an interview, must carefully review all relevant books and materials on the pages. But the Internet did so easily. There are several questions and answers to the interviews that are available today.
Therefore, preparation for interviews has become much simpler these days.
In this article, I listed the most important and frequently asked questions and answers about the basic network visual interviews for your easy understanding and reminder. This, in turn, will lead you to success in your career.


Monday, September 17, 2018

Subnetting explained

Subnetting Explained


The subnetting divides the network into two or more smaller networks. This improves routing efficiency, improves network security, and reduces the size of the broadcast domain.


Let's take the following example:





Subnet Example

In the picture above we have a huge network: 10.0.0.0/24. All hosts on the network are on the same subnet, which has the following drawbacks:one broadcast domain - all hosts are in the same broadcast domain. Broadcast sent from any device on the network is processed by all hosts.Network security. Each device can connect to another device on the subnet, which can cause security problems. For example, the confidential information server is on the same network as the end user's workstation.organizational problems - in large networks, different services are usually grouped into different subnets. For example, you can group all Accountry devices on the same subnet, and then grant confidential financial data only to hosts on that subnet.

The above network can be divided as follows:


Subnet Example 2


Now for different departments two Subnets are created: 10.0.0.0/24 for accounting and 10.1.0.0/24 for marketing. The devices in each Subnet are now in a different broadcast domain.

You can Practice 300+Subnetting Questions Here: Click Here

Sunday, September 16, 2018

IEEE Ethernet standards

IEEE Ethernet standards

Ethernet is defined in a series of IEEE 802.3 standards. These standards define the physical layer and data link specifications for Ethernet. The most important 802.3 standards are:


10Base-T (IEEE 802.3) - 10 Mbit / s with unshielded twisted pair (UTP) of Category 3 cables, up to 100 meters long.
100Base-TX (IEEE 802.3u) - or Fast Ethernet - used Category 5, 5E or 6 UTP cable, which can be up to 100 meters long.
100Base-FX (IEEE 802.3u) - a version of Fast Ethernet using a multimode fiber. Up to 412 meters long.
1000Base-CX (IEEE 802.3z) - uses twisted pair copper cable. Up to 25 meters long.
Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-T (IEEE 802.3ab), which uses UTP Category 5 cabling. Up to 100 meters long.
1000Base-SX (IEEE 802.3z) - 1 Gigabit Ethernet cable on multimode fiber optic.
1000Base-LX (IEEE 802.3z) - 1 Gigabit Ethernet over single-mode fiber.
10GBase-T (802.3.an) - 10 Gbps connections on Category 5e, 6 and 7 a UTP cable.


Note that the first number of the name of the standard represents the speed of the network in megabits per second. The word base refers to the baseband, which means that the signals are transmitted without modulation. The last part of the default name refers to the cabling used to transmit the signals. For example, 1000baseT means, that network speed is up to 1000 Mbps, baseband signaling is used and twisted pair cable is used (T means twisted pair).

Saturday, September 15, 2018

Wide Area Network

The term "global network or Wide Area Network" is used to describe a network covering multiple regions. Let's take an example. The company has two offices: one in London and the other in Berlin. Both offices have a LAN. When a company connects these two LANs through WAN technology, a WAN is created.

The main difference between a LAN and a WAN is that a company typically does not have a WAN infrastructure. Companies generally lease WAN services from their service providers. WANs covering multiple cities may look like this:



WAN network

Frame Relay, ATM, and X.25 are other types of WAN technologies. The Internet can also be considered global.

Thursday, September 13, 2018

Cheat sheets for CCNA

Cheat sheets (including cheat sheets) or bed sheets are a concise set of notes used for quick reference.



Cheat sheets are so called because they can be used by students without knowledge of the instructor cheating on the exam. However, in high-level education where memorization is not as important as in basic education, students may refer to their notes during the exam (not considered cheating). Preparing a bed sheet can be an educational exercise, and students can sometimes only use their own bed sheets.

Cheat sheets are often physical paper filled with equations and / or facts from compressed text. Students print the cheat sheet in very small prints and adjust the entire page of notes with the palm of the exam.

Bed sheets are a perfect solution for examinations or worksheets that are usually delivered to college staff to facilitate marking.




1.7 Layer of OSI Model : Click Here To Download

2.EIGRP :Click Here To Download

3.IPv4 Subnetting :Click Here To Download

4.IPv6 :Click Here To Download

5.NAT :

6.OSPF :

7.QOS :

8.RIP :

9.SPANNING TREE :

10.VLANs :

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) Cheatsheet

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) Cheatsheet


Like IPv4, IPv6 also supports routing protocols that allow routers to exchange information over connected networks.


As with IPv4, IPv6 routing protocols can be vectors of distances and links. An example of a distance vector protocol is RIPng with the number of jumps as a measure. An example of a connection state routing protocol is OSPF with cost as a metric.


IPv6 supports the following routing protocols:

RIPng (RIP new generation)
OSPFv3
EIGRP for IPv6
IS-IS for IPv6
MP-BGP4 (multiprotocol BGP-4)


Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Static Routing Explained and Static Routing Configuration Practical


Static Routing Explained and Practical and Static Routing Configuration




Static path


By adding a static route, the router can know the route to a remote network that is not directly connected to one of the interfaces. Static routes are configured manually by entering the general configuration mode command ip route DESTINATION_NETWORK SUBNET_MASK NEXT_HOP_IP_ADDRESS. This type of configuration is typically used for small networks because of scalability (all routers must be configured on all routers).

A simple example will help you understand the concept of a static route.



Static road topology


The router is connected directly to the router. Router B connects directly to the subnet 10.0.1.0/24. Since this subnet is not directly connected to Router A, routers do not know how to route the destination packets for this subnet. But. You can manually configure this route on your router.

Before you add a static route, think about the router's routing table.

Show ip route first


Now use the static route command to configure Router A to access the 10.0.0.0/24 subnet. Now the router has a route to reach the subnet.

Shows the following IP routes.



The S character in the lookup table indicates that the path is a statically configured path.

There is another version of the rope route command. You do not need to specify the next hop IP address. You can select the output interface of the local router. In the above example, you can request that the correct interface generate all the target traffic for the subnet to the router (A) by creating the IP address of the DEST_NETWORK NEXT_HOP_INTERFACE command. In our case, the ip route command is 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 Fa0 / 0 ...





What is the difference between switch & router?

What is the difference between Switch & Router?


The changes create a network. Routers connect networks. The router connects computers online so that users can share connections. The router works as a dispatcher, choosing the best way to be informed and move quickly.


Since you did not specify a layer, please refer to the layer 2 switch.

Router vs Switch


Change the functions to the MAC address, the router running on the IP address

Switch functions to the layer link layer for OSI, the router applies to the layout
Go to the Frames process and the packages in the Router process.